Mughal Empire

/Tag:Mughal Empire

One-India Fallacy

October 12th, 2018|

‘…and the so-called one India is only a means
of British domination and British rule…’
Jinnah, Cairo, December 19, 1946

According to Jinnah, there never was any doubt that the British wanted to lead India ‘ultimately’ to freedom and independence, persistent with the ‘great ideal’ of Commonwealth (see his toast to King George VI). However, according to him, […]

Anarkali

May 1st, 2005|

Dawn, Images, May 1, 2005.

According to one contemporary account, Anarkali was in her forties or older when she was suspected of having an affair with the heir apparent, Prince Salim, who was in the thirtieth year of his life and father to at least three sons from numerous wives. Salim’s father, the otherwise enlightened Emperor […]

Mumtaz Mahal: the Lady of the Taj Mahal

June 21st, 2001|

Dawn, The Review, sometime in 2001

She lies buried under Taj Mahal. Her name was Arjumand (later Mumtaz Mahal), she was the immortal beloved of Prince Khurram (later Shahjahan), and a daughter of Abul Hasan (later Asaf Khan), a Persian at Jahangir’s court. Historians don’t tell us much about her beyond this. Let’s make an attempt […]

Dara Shikoh: a daydream

March 15th, 2001|

This article was originally published in Dawn, The Review, March 15-21, 2001. Since then, I have reconsidered my opinion about how the personality of Emperor Jahangir might have influenced his two grandsons, Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb. I hope to offer my revised opinion in a separate post in future. I have not changed the text, […]

Aurangzeb

December 7th, 2000|

This article was originally pubished in Dawn, The Review, sometime in December 2000. Today, I cannot present it without a postcript, which has been added at the end, to highlight a few important points that need to be revised in my opinion. No changes (except spelling and typos) have been made in the text itself.

“My […]

Khanzadeh Begum – At the altar of sacrifice

November 30th, 2000|

Dawn, The Review, probably November 30-December 6, 2000

Khanzadeh Begum is one of the forgotten women of history. She played an important role in the careers of Babur and Humayun, and was a pillar of the Mughal dynasty in its formative phase. The early historians, including Babur himself, mention her, but the modern historians often do […]